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What is Alpha-Gal Syndrome? Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Specialists know alpha-gal syndrome to be something similar to an allergy to red meat, in addition to other animal products. In this case, the illness doesn’t just develop spontaneously or as a result of genetic alterations. It’s actually caused by an insect bite. Specifically, the bite from a tick may cause this condition.

The bite causes an autoimmune reaction that ends up being the syndrome in question. Once a person reaches this point, they can’t go back to eating red meat because they experience adverse side-effects.

Does alpha-gal syndrome have risk factors?

The majority of cases of people with alpha-gal syndrome are in the United States, specifically the southeast region. This area is where we find the insect that’s capable of unleashing the problem with its bite.

However, gradually we’re seeing more cases in other areas of the country. Specialists have even detected cases in Europe and Asia. However, overall, the main risk factor is belonging to a geographic region with a high tick population.

Similarly, the fact that many people have experienced anaphylactic shocks after eating other products too suggests an increase in the possibility of illness. Despite that, the key here is to avoid being bitten by the tick. Without being bitten, it’s not possible to develop the problem, according to a study published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine.

What are the symptoms of alpha-gal syndrome?

Alpha-gal syndrome produces symptoms that are similar to any kind of food allergy, although they can take longer to show. It can take up to 3 hours after being exposed to red meat for the person affected to show symptoms. The most common signs are the following:

Remember that anaphylactic shock requires specialized medical attention. Ignoring this could put the person’s life at risk, as an investigation in the Vnitr Lekarstvi Journal shows. The person is at a greater risk of experiencing this if they have experienced this after eating something before.

When should you consult a doctor?

If you start to notice that you’ve had a recurring and uncomfortable reaction after eating red meat or any animal-derived product, you must see a doctor. They’ll be able to carry out diagnostic tests to identify the allergy and potential alpha-gal syndrome.

If you experience the following symptoms, you must visit a doctor immediately and urgently:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Dizziness
  • Inability to swallow


To get a diagnosis for this kind of allergy, it’s important to review your medical history. It’ll also probably be useful to have a physical exam.

Additionally, it may be helpful to undergo a test that measures your tolerance to red meat with immunoglobulins. This has been proven to be the most effective method for detecting the allergy. However, to associate the allergy with alpha-gal syndrome, detecting the marks left from a bite or references of having suffered it.

Treatment and Prevention

There’s only one way you can prevent alpha-gal syndrome and that’s by avoiding the areas where these insects are. If you have to visit one of these places, we recommend you use repellants so that they don’t bite you. You have to take special care if you live in a house with a garden in a region with an abundance of these insects.

When it comes to treatment, it’s worth mentioning that there’s no solution to this problem. However, you can adapt your diet to avoid consuming red meat, by eliminating these foods. You’ll have to substitute these with others with high protein content, though. Eggs are a good example.

Alpha-gal syndrome: an uncommon illness

Despite being a very interesting problem that affects the diet of the person affected, alpha-gal syndrome isn’t very common. The amount of cases really depends on the population in question because living in certain areas of the United States is the only thing that puts a person at risk.

However, you should remember to take precautions to avoid being bitten so that it’s impossible to develop alpha-gal syndrome. Don’t forget that once you develop it, there’s no cure. In that case, you would have to remove all red meat and its by-products from your diet.

As a result, it would then be essential to adapt your diet to avoid protein deficiencies that can affect your health, such as eating white meat and eggs.

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